The Aravalli Range and Hilly Region of Rajasthan

The Aravalli Range and Hilly Region – The Physiography of Rajasthan
1. Introduction
2. North Eastern Aravalli Ranges or Alwar Range
3. Central Aravalli Ranges
4. Mewar Rocky Region or Bharot Plateau
5. Abu Block
Introduction of Aravalli Range and Hilly Region
  • The Aravalli range is one of the oldest mountain range in the world. It is running across the Rajasthan state from South-West to North-East, bisecting the Rajasthan into two parts.
  • The Aravalli Range starts from Palanpur, Gujrat and ends at Raisana hill of Delhi. In Rajasthan, it starts from Brahm Kheda, Sirohi and ends at Khetdi, Jhunjhunu. After Jhunjhunu, it spreads up to Delhi in non-continuous form.
  • It also works as Great Indian Watershed.
  • The Aravalli range acts as a great check to the advancement of the sand into central India and Ganga Valley. However, there are gaps in the Aravalli Range and sand from western side, has advanced through them to the east of it.
  • The total length of Aravalli range is 692KM. However, the total length in Rajasthan is 550KM. The average height of Aravalli Range is 930 Meters.
  • The length and breadth of Aravalli range is highest at south-west region and decreases in the north-east direction.
  • The Aravalli hills are very high in the beginning. However, due to overlay, it remains the residual mountains.
  • Area – 9% of total area of the Rajasthan State.
  • Population – 10% of total population of the Rajasthan State.
  • Rain – 50cm to 90cm.
  • Climate – Semi Humid.
  • Soil – Black, Brown and granular soil.
  • Crops – Maize.
  • The main range of Aravalli is made up of Quartz.
  • The Aravalli range is the oldest fold mountain of the world.
  • It has huge deposits of minerals i.e. Copper, Lead, Zinc, Silver, Iron, Manganese, Granite, lime stone, Marbal, Emerald etc.
  • The main tribes living in this region are Bheel, Meena, Garasiya, Damor etc
  • The Aravalli range and Hilly Region is divided into three parts –
    (i) North Eastern Aravalli Range or Alwar Range
    (ii) Central Aravalli Range
    (iii) Southern Aravalli Region
Aravalli Range & of Rajasthan - Physical Divisions of Rajasthan
Aravalli Range & of Rajasthan – Physical Divisions of Rajasthan
North Eastern Aravalli Range or Alwar Range
  • The North-Eastern Aravalli Range starts from the Sambhar lake of Nagaur district to low ridges of Delhi via the isolated hills of Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Nagaur districts.
  • It has an average elevation of 450 meters. However, at some points, it is up to 750 meter.
  • The hills of Shekhawati, Malkhet & Khetri Group of hills, Torawati Hills and hills of Jaipur and Alwar are the prominent hills in this region.
  • North of Beawar, the pitches of the alluvium intermingle with the ridges. These pitches increase in the size and depth towards the North occupying all the gaps between ridges and forms area of internal drainage. Lake Sambhar is an example of this.
  • Northeast of the Alwar, the hills becomes the narrow and with decreasing elevation until it merges with the Ganga Yamuna Plain.
  • Main Peaks of this region –
    Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters) Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters)
    1 Raghunathgarh (Sikar) 1055 2 Koh (Jaipur) 920
    3 Bhairach (Alwar) 792 4 Barwara (Jaipur) 786
    5 Babai (Jhunjhunu) 780 6 Bilali (Alwar) 755
    7 Manoharpura (Jaipur) 747 8 Bairath (Jaipur) 704
    9 Sariska (Alwar) 677 10 Sirawas 651
    11 Bhangarh (Alwar) 649 12 Jaigarh (Jaipur) 648
    13 Nahargarh (Jaipur) 599 14 Balagarh (Alwar) 597
Central Aravalli Range
  • Central Aravalli Range includes the Nagaur, southern part of Ajmer, Devgarh tehsil of Rajsamand, Jaipur and South-Western Tonk districts and lower hills of Shekhawati region of Rajasthan.
  • The Central Aravalli range extends from Sambhar Lake to the Bhrote plateau. This upland is bounded by Sambhar basin in West, Banas plain in south, the Karauli table in the East and Alwar hills in North.
  • The average elevation of the hills this part is approx. 700 meters while average elevation of valleys is 550 meters.
  • The length of Central Aravalli Range is 100 KM with a width of 30 KM and valley with depth of 550 meters.
  • This range mainly spreads in the Ajmer district.
  • Peaks of Central Aravalli regions –
    Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters) Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters)
    1 Goramji (Ajmer) 934 2 Marayji (Todgarh) 933
    3 Taragarh (Ajmer) 870 4 Naag Pahar (Ajmer) 795
  • The Central Aravalli Region further divided into two regions –
    (a) Sambhar Basin or Shekhawati Lower hills.
    (b) Marwar hills.
[a] Sambhar Basin or Shekhawati Lower hills –
  • Hilly ranges which separates the plains of Marwar to the high plateau of the Mewar are called the hills of Merwara.
  • It includes the some parts of Nagaur and Jaipur districts of Rajasthan.
  • The average height of this region is 400 meter except west of Sambhar lake and Nawa tehsils of tonk where height reaches 500 meter.
  • This region is also marked by sand hills and low depression with inland drainage.
[b] Marwar hills –
  • It includes the some parts of Beawar, Ajmer and Kishangarh tehsils of Ajmer districts.
  • The average height of this region is 550 meters.
  • The Marwar hills appear in the parallel succession of hills in the vicinity of Ajmer city which itself is situated on a plateau.
Southern Aravalli Region
  • This region is covers mainly Udaipur, Rajsamand, Dungarpur and Sirohi districts of Rajasthan.
  • The hills of this part have high elevation and spreads like the palm.
  • The average elevation of hills in this region is 900 meters.
  • Mewar Rocky Region includes South-eastern parts of Pali district, Udaipur district except eastern part and parts of Gujrat state situated between Banas Basin and Abu Block.
  • The Southern Aravalli Region further divided into two regions –
    (a) The Mewar Rocky Region or Bharot Plateau.
    (b) Abu Block.
[a] Mewar Rocky Region or Bharot Plateau
  • The Mewar Rocky Region includes Pali (south-eastern parts), Udaipur (except eastern part), Rajsamand, Chittorgarh and eastern parts of Sirohi and Pratapgarh districts.
  • The highest portion of the Mewar Rocky Region lies north-wast of Udaipur district, between the forts of Kumbhalgarh & Gogunda in the form of plateau locally known as ‘Bhorat’.
  • Bhorat Plateau is the highest table like structure of Aravalli Range.
  • The average elevation of this region is 1225 meters. However, the elevation of some peaks is 1300 meters.
  • This region is the most distinctive hilly region of Aravalli hills.
  • It also represent the great Indian watershed running from north of Udaipur district to south-west before turning to east of Udaipur City.
  • The steep slope and rough hills of aravalli range, situated in the eastern Sirohi are called ‘Bhakar’ in local language.
  • The statistical shape hills of Aravalli range, situated near the eastern Udaipur, are called ‘Magra’ in local language.
  • The plateau reagion of Chittorgarh is called the ‘Plateau of Mesa’.
  • Main Peaks of Mewar Rocky Regions –
    Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters) Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters)
    1 Jarga (Udaipur) 1431 2 Kumbhalgarh 1224
    3 Kamalnath 1001 4 Sajjangarh 938
    5 Sayra 900 6 Leelagarh 874
    7 Nagpani 867 8 Googunga 840
    9 Kotda 450 10
[b] Abu Block
  • The Abu block covers the whole of Sirohi District.
  • Mount Abu is a 19 KM long and 8 KM narrow plateau, nearly 1200 meters above sea level.
  • It is an irregular plateau surrounded by several projected peaks.
  • The ‘Udiya Plateau’ is the highest plateau oof the Rajasthan state, where the highest peak of state ‘Guru Sikhar’ is situated.
  • It is separated from main Aravalli Range by the wide valley of the Banas.
  • The slopes of hills in this region are extremely precipitous.
  • The hills of Jaswantpura is situated in the Abu Block, among which ‘Dora Parvat’ has the highest elevation (869 meters).
  • The round shaped Granite hills, also called ‘Chappan ki pahadiya’ or ‘Nakoda Parvat’, are also situated in this region.
  • Main Peaks of the Abu Block –
    Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters) Sr No Peaks Elevation (Meters)
    1 Guru Shikhar (Sirohi) 1722 2 Ser (Sirohi) 1597
    3 Dilwara (Sirohi) 1442 4 Achalgarh (Sirohi) 1310
    5 Abu 1295 6 Dhoniya 1183
    7 Hrishikesh 1017 8 Dora Parvat 869
    9 Israna Bhakhar 839 10 Roja Bhakhar 730
    11 Jharola Bhakhar 588 12
More on Physical Divisions of Rajasthan

On the basis of present landforms and climate, the physical divisions of Rajasthan can be one in four following physiographic parts –

1. North Western Desert
2. Aravalli Region and Hilly Region
3. Eastern Plains
4. South-eastern Rajasthan Pathar (Hadoti’s Plateau)

Reference Articles / Books

Panorama, 7th Edition by H. D. Singh & others
Rajasthan at Wikipedia

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