Factors affecting Climate of Rajasthan

Climate of Rajasthan – Introduction
  • Climate is generally defined as the average states of different atmospheric conditions/whether over a long period of time. The temperature, air pressure, humidity, rainfall, wind velocity are the main components which decides the climate of a region.
  • The distribution of different types of vegetation and creatures are mostly and greatly affected by the climate of that region. The important factors which affect the climate of an region are latitude, attitude, position of that region relative to major water bodies, mountain barrier, prevailing winds and wind associate phenomena, activities done by humans in that region.
Main features of the Climate of Rajasthan
  • The most of the rainfall (more than 90%) in the Rajasthan occurs in the summer season (July to September) by the south-west seasonal winds. In the cold season (December to February), Rajasthan gets the rainfall by shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the Mediterranean Sea. This rainfall also called the ‘Mahavat’.
  • The average rainfall in the Rajasthan is 58-60cmm. However, there is huge variation in the amount of rainfall, where west part get lowest rainfall (0-20cm) and East get highest rainfall (100-120cm).
  • Due to scarcity and irregularity of rainfall, there is a huge probability of famine and draught in any particular year.
  • There are all four types of climate in Rajasthan i.e. arid, sub-humid, humid and very humid.
  • The average temperature of Rajasthan 35-40°C in summer season and 12-17°C in cold season. However, there is a huge difference in temperature of from East to West.
  • The humidity in Rajasthan is 45-47% in June, which raises 68-70% in the month of August.
Factors affecting the climate of the Rajasthan
  • Latitude of the Rajasthan – The tropic of cancer passes through the south par of Rajasthan State. So, the most part of Rajasthan comes in the sub-tropical zone, due to which there is huge variation in the temperature.
  • Distance from Sea – Due to large distance from the Sea, the narrow climate of sea does not affect the climate of Rajasthan. So there are inequality in the temperature like continental climate.
  • Surface – The 61% part of the state is desert, where due to huge sandy soil, the difference in temperature is very large.
  • The — of Aravalli Range – The Aravalli range is parallel to the south-west seasonal winds coming from Arabian Sea. So, there is no rail due to — of Aravalli range.
  • Altitude – The altitude of south and south-west part of the Rajasthan is high. So there is a low temperature as compare to other parts.

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