1. The Hot Weather Season (March to June)
2. The Rainy Season (July to September)
3. The Season of the Retreating Monsoon (October & November)
4. The Cold Weather Season (December to January)
5. More in Climate
The climate of the Rajasthan is very odd. There is a great diversity during the seasons in the Rajasthan. The climate of the Rajasthan is divided into three major seasons –
(i) The Hot Weather Season (March to June)
(ii) The Rainy Season (July to September)
(iii) The Cold Weather Season (October to February)
- The hot whether season starts with movement of Sun toward the Tropic of Cancer in March. It ends in the month of June-July, when rainy seasons starts.
- In the months, the Sun overhead tropic of cancer. So the temperature is maximum in the month of June. The mean temperature of Rajasthan at this time is 38°C. However, the maximum temperature in western districts reaches at 45-50°C in day and minimum temperature 14-15°C. The difference in temperature in sandy region is generally found 32-35°C. The Aravalli Range has lower temperature (30°C) due to its high elevation.
- The center of low air pressure is created due to high temperature. Due to this center of low air pressure, the dusty storms are very common in south-eastern (in May) and north-western (in June) areas of Rajasthan. The Shri Ganganagar has about 25-28 days of dust-storm, Bikaner 16-18 days and Jodhpur 7-8 days.
- Due to high temperature, the surface becomes very hot. Due to this, the hot and dry winds, known as ‘Loo’, blow from west to east direction.
- Due to high temperature in India in May – June, a center of low air pressure is created in the west and north-west India. While is temperature is low in Southern Hemisphere at this time, creates the high air pressure region.
- The low air pressure created in the west and north-west India, becomes so strong that it attracts the trade wind of Indian ocean coming from Southern hemisphere.
- This southeast trade wind passes over the equatorial warm currents and brings the moisture in abundance. Then these winds enter the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and caught in the air circulation over India.
- These trade winds follow the south-west direction. So monsoon created by these winds is known as South-west monsoons.
- When these winds approaches the land, due to geographical features of India, these monsoon winds divided into two parts
(a). The Arabian Sea Monsoon
(b). The Bay of Bengal Monsoon.
- However these branches tries to reach low air pressure area, west and north-west India, the Rajasthan gets very less rainfall because of the following reasons –
(a) The Bay of Bengal monsoon already gives up its most of the moisture during its passes through Ganga Plain. Further the Aravalli range starches the south-west to north-west, so the western part of the Rajasthan lies in opposite side of the Bay of Bengal monsoon and receives very little rainfall from this monsoon.
(b) The direction of the Arabian Sea Monsoon is from south-west to north-east. The Aravalli Range also lies in the same direction. So, the Aravalli Range does not interrupt the Arabian Sea monsoon and Rajasthan gets no or little rainfall from this monsoon. However, the Mount Abu has slight west span, thus receive highest mansoon.
- In Rainy season, the mean temperature of Rajasthan remains 18-30°C.
- The Rajasthan Metrological Department of India again sub-divided the cold weather season into two parts –
(a) The Season of the Retreating Monsoon (October & November)
(b) The Cold Weather Season (December to February)
- The months of October and November are known as months of retreating monsoons.
- After 22nd September, the Sun begins to overhead in Southern Hemisphere. Due to this high air pressure area is created in southern hemisphere and low air pressure area in north and north-west India.
- Due to this air pressure difference, the monsoon retreat from western Rajasthan by first week of October.
- The retreating south-west monsoon season is marked by clear sky and rise in temperature. The land is still moist. Due to this high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes oppressive. This is commonly known as ‘October heat’.
- The average temperature in this remains the same throughout Rajasthan from maximum 32-35°C and minimum 17-20°C.
- The Cold Weather Season starts from December and continuous till February.
- The average temperature changes 12°C in East to 16°C in south.
- Due to high air pressure in west and north-west India and low air pressure in Indian Ocean, the air flow from west and north-west India to Indian Ocean.
- In this time, the north-western parts of India get the rainfall from shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the east Mediterranean Sea. This rainfall is also called ‘Mahavat’.